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    2 контрольные работы по английскому

    I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания -s.
    1. The scientific and technological equipment brought great changes in people’s life and work.
    2. The passengers were informed of the flight’s delay.
    3. Nowadays London’s transport moves only four km faster than in 1912.

    II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be
    1. There was some engine trouble and the driver asked the passengers to get off the bus.
    2. At the railway station there are announcements boards that inform passengers when and to what track the train will arrive.
    3. In April 2008, there was a 300 km traffic jam on the N4 motorway (the main road fr om London to Wales) at the end of the Easter holiday.

    III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
    1. At this railway station, the stops of the trains last only five minutes.
    2. Such engineers as Frolov, Yartzev and Polsunov made great contribution to the development of railway transport in Russia.
    3. If you help me, I shall repair the engine in an hour.

    IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
    1. Box cars are used for the transportation of goods, which require protection against rain.
    2. The first passenger cars were lighted by candles, later candles were replaced by oil and gas lamps.
    3. After the reconstruction of the railway, the speed of train will be increased and the carrying capacity of the line will be raised.

    V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.
    1. Railway transport is one of the cheapest ways of carrying freight over long distances.

    2. The continuous welded rails provide a smoother movement of trains at higher speeds.
    3. If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by air.

    VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.
    1. The railway line that has no long tunnels and bridges is the cheapest line.

    2. Petrol is more expensive than it was two years ago.
    3. The railway became the most important means of transportation thanks to the invention of the steam locomotive.

    VII. Перепишите и переведите текст.
    The St. Petersburg-Moscow Mainline is the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia. The project of this railway was proposed by P.P. Melnikov. According to his project “chugunka” was planned as a double-track line, 664 km long, with the feet gauge (now the standard), steam-powered. The speed of passenger and freight trains was supposed to be 34.4 km and 16 km respectively.

    The construction began in 1843 and lasted 8 years. From the very beginning, the builders faced many hardships because of severe climatic and difficult geological conditions. Hundreds of kilometers of track were laid down through forests and marshes, many rivers were crossed. The line is virtually straight and level. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts were built to make the line as straight as possible. There is a legend that the route of the railway was chosen by the Tzar Nikolay I, who drew a straight line between the two cities on the map and ordered this line to be the route of the railway. However, the fact is that the construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work, a great part of which was done by P.P. Melnikov himself.

    All the component parts of the track, bridges and viaducts were produced at Russian plants by using only domestic materials, including timber for sleepers and cast iron for rails.

    One has to give credit* to the first railway builders, who laid the track in extremely difficult conditions. Nobody took care of the workers and nobody paid attention to their working conditions. People lived in “shalashes” or dugouts; ate often tainted food; worked from dawn till sunset, often in water up to their knees and their main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts. The cruel exploitation of the workers was exposed by Nekrasov in his famous poem “The Railway”. The railroad was officially opened for traffic on November 1, 1851.

    The first train departed from St. Petersburg at 11.15 and arrived in Moscow 21 hours 45 minutes later. There were 17 passengers in the first-class cars, 63 – in the second-class cars and 112 – in the third-class cars. The speed of the first trains was 40 km/h but two years later, it was increased up to 60 km/h. It was the world’s record in the speed of passenger trains.
    Notes: *one has to give credit – нужно отдать должное

    VIII. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.
    1. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the oldest railway in Russia.
    2. P.P. Melnikov made the project of the St. Petersburg-Moscow mainline.
    3. It was a single-track line.
    4. This line had many curves and gradients
    5. The construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work. 6. All the materials for the construction were imported from Britain.
    7. Rails were made of cast iron.
    8. The railway was opened for traffic in 1851.
    9. The first train departed from Moscow at midnight.
    10. The train consisted of first-class cars only.

    I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы
    1. The reason for the freight train derailment has not been found yet.
    2. The station master said that no trains had arrived at the station during the night because of the heavy snowstorm in the mountains.
    3. The program of railway reforms is being implemented now in Russia. Under this program, suburban and regional passenger services will be financed from local budgets.

    II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.
    1. When we came to the railway station, all the tickets had been sold out already.
    2. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today.
    3. Train fare had been increased several times during the past year.

    III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive).
    1. The wooden supports for rails are called the sleepers.
    2. The workers were inspecting carefully the carriages before the train departure.
    3. One of Metro stations will be built near my house.

    IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.
    1. If you are travelling by air, you must not carry anything in your luggage that can be used as a weapon.

    2. The driver of the vehicle may be fined by the police officer if he/she violates the traffic rules.

    3. We could hardly start the engine at -30C.

    V. Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык
    Model: to install - a) installing – устанавливающий, устанавливая
    b) having installed – установив.
    1) to begin
    a) beginning
    b) having begun
    2) to heat;
    a) heating
    b) having heated
    3) to improve;
    a) improving
    b) having improved
    4) to fall;
    a) falling
    b) having fallen
    5) to meet;
    a) meeting
    b) having met
    6) to suggest;
    a) suggesting
    b) having suggested
    7) to run;
    a) running
    b) having run
    8) to calculate;
    a) calculating
    b) having calculated
    9) to write;
    a) writing
    b) having wrote
    10) to weigh;
    a) weighing
    b) having weighed
    11) to link;
    a) linking
    b) having linked
    12) to implement;
    a) implementing
    b) having implemented
    13) to grow;
    a) growing
    b) having grown
    14) to choose;
    a) choosing
    b) having chosen
    15) to design
    a) designing
    b) having designed

    VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.
    1. Trains arrivals and departures are announced by a loudspeaker, it is very convenient for people meeting somebody or seeing somebody off.

    2. Metro, solving the problem of carrying a great number of passengers is a very important means of communication
    3. Driving a car in the rush hour, you must be very attentive because traffic is very heavy.

    VII. Образуйте от глаголов данных в скобках, Participle II. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык
    1) an engine invented by R. Diesel;

    2) the approved plan;
    3) a bag left in the bus;
    4) received information;
    5) a new supercomputer developed by Japanese engineers;

    6) burnt gas;
    7) the insured car;
    8) increased volume of traffic;
    9) a forced landing;
    10) a worked out project

    VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.
    1. In some European countries, tank cars made of reinforced plastic are used for conveyance of wine and fruit juices.

    2. The things left behind the passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property office.
    3. Many scientists invited to the conference took part in it with great pleasure.

    IX. Перепишите и переведите текст

    The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city’s transport. Metro can solve the problems of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise.

    However, from the technical point of view the underground railway system is very expensive and complicated constructional work. This system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. Ground based lines are usually used at the terminations of the underground railways. Besides the underground and surface structures involve stations, tunnels, escalators, underpasses, ventilation and sanitary engineering as well as a power supply system.

    The permanent way of underground railways differs from the usual railway track. The sleepers are only 0.9 m long. They are shorter than those of the railroad track which are 2.7 m long. The sleepers of the usual track are laid upon ballast made of broken stone or other materials. The crossties of the underground railway are laid directly on concrete base. It is more expensive but keeps air free from dust. If the ballast were made of slag, gravel, sand or even broken stone, the train would be followed by the dust clouds.

    All Metro trains are powered by electricity. The current is obtained from the third rail. This contact rail is laid along the whole track and transmits the direct current of 825 volts to the train electromotor through the pantograph. The Underground carrying capacity depends on the number of coaches, which ranges from 2 to 8 per train and the frequency of train running which ranges from 80 seconds to 8 minutes.

    Nowadays there are underground railways in 80 cities all over the world. The first Metro railways lines were constructed in London in 1863. It is the oldest but not the longest Underground. New York was the second city to build the subway. The first track was laid in 1868 and nowadays it is the longest Metro in the world. The shortest Metro line was constructed in Turkey.

    Its length is only 600 m but Istanbul is very proud of the metropolitan means of traffic.

    X. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.
    1. Is the underground railway the quickest means of transport? - Yes, it is.
    2. Can Metro solve the problem of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities? - Yes, it can.
    3. Does the underground railway system include only subsurface lines? - No, this system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines.
    4. Are the sleepers of the underground railway laid on concrete base? - Yes, they are.
    5. Do the Metro trains always consist of 4 coaches? - No, they range from 2 to 8 per train.
    6. Are there underground railways in 80 cities all over the world? - Yes, there are.
    7. Was London the second city to build the Metro? - No, it was the first city to build the Metro.
    8. Did New York construct its Underground in 1963? - No, it didn’t.
    9. Do you know wh ere the shortest railway line in the world is? - The shortest Metro line was constructed in Turkey.
    10. Have metro lines been already constructed in all large cities all over the world? - Yes, they have.

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